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free_software [2016/06/13 10:40]
hkimscil
free_software [2016/06/13 10:41] (current)
hkimscil
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 <​imgcaption image4|Richard M Stallma>​{{:​richard_stallman_-_fete_de_l_humanite_2014_-_010.jpg?​192 |Richard M Stallman}}</​imgcaption>​ 1983년 MIT의 Stallman은 ((http://​www.stallman.org/​ 참조)) ((그에 대한 정보는 WikiPedia:​Richard_Stallman 를 참조. )) 자신이 작성했던 프로그램 중 Symbolics사가 고친 부분은 살펴 볼 수 없다는 것, 그리고, Symbolics사가 자신과 주변의 소위 "​hacker"​라고 불리는 자유스러운 정신을 가진 프로그래머들에게 상업적인 굴레를 씌우는 것에 반대를 하면서 GNU manifesto를 (GNU 강령) 만든다. 이 강령은 소프트웨어는 "​굴레로부터 자유롭게 사용되어야 한다((Free는 자유라는 의미를 뜻하지 무료 혹은 공짜를 뜻하는 것은 아니다.))는 뜻을 담고 있으며, copyright라는 상업적인 굴레가 좀 더 나은, 사회에 도움이 되는 software를 제작하거나 사용하는 환경을 (오히려) 해치고 있음을 주장한다. 그는 초안으로 작성된 GNU manifesto ((http://​www.gnu.org/​gnu/​manifesto.html 참조))를 더 가다듬어 GNU General Public License 를 만들고 free software를 위한 GNU project를 진행하는 한편, Free Software Foundation을 비영리단체로 설립한다. <​imgcaption image4|Richard M Stallma>​{{:​richard_stallman_-_fete_de_l_humanite_2014_-_010.jpg?​192 |Richard M Stallman}}</​imgcaption>​ 1983년 MIT의 Stallman은 ((http://​www.stallman.org/​ 참조)) ((그에 대한 정보는 WikiPedia:​Richard_Stallman 를 참조. )) 자신이 작성했던 프로그램 중 Symbolics사가 고친 부분은 살펴 볼 수 없다는 것, 그리고, Symbolics사가 자신과 주변의 소위 "​hacker"​라고 불리는 자유스러운 정신을 가진 프로그래머들에게 상업적인 굴레를 씌우는 것에 반대를 하면서 GNU manifesto를 (GNU 강령) 만든다. 이 강령은 소프트웨어는 "​굴레로부터 자유롭게 사용되어야 한다((Free는 자유라는 의미를 뜻하지 무료 혹은 공짜를 뜻하는 것은 아니다.))는 뜻을 담고 있으며, copyright라는 상업적인 굴레가 좀 더 나은, 사회에 도움이 되는 software를 제작하거나 사용하는 환경을 (오히려) 해치고 있음을 주장한다. 그는 초안으로 작성된 GNU manifesto ((http://​www.gnu.org/​gnu/​manifesto.html 참조))를 더 가다듬어 GNU General Public License 를 만들고 free software를 위한 GNU project를 진행하는 한편, Free Software Foundation을 비영리단체로 설립한다.
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 In 1971 when I joined the staff of the MIT Artificial Intelligence lab, all of us who helped develop the operating system software, we called ourselves hackers. We were not breaking any laws, at least not in doing the hacking we were paid to do. We were developing software and we were having fun. Hacking refers to the spirit of fun in which we were developing software. The hacker ethic refers to the feelings of right and wrong, to the ethical ideas this community of people had -- that knowledge should be shared with other people who can benefit from it, and that important resources should be utilized rather than wasted. Back in those days computers were quite scarce, and one thing about our computer was it would execute about a third-of-a-million instructions every second, and it would do so whether there was any need to do so or not. If no one used these instructions,​ they would be wasted. So to have an administrator say, "well you people can use a computer and all the rest of you can'​t,"​ means that if none of those officially authorized people wanted to use the machine that second, it would go to waste. For many hours every morning it would mostly go to waste. So we decided that was a shame. Anyone should be able to use it who could make use of it, rather than just throwing it away. In general we did not tolerate bureaucratic obstructionism. We felt, "this computer is here, it was bought by the public, it is here to advance human knowledge and do whatever is constructive and useful."​ So we felt it was better to let anyone at all use it -- to learn about programming,​ or do any other kind of work other than commercial activity. ​ In 1971 when I joined the staff of the MIT Artificial Intelligence lab, all of us who helped develop the operating system software, we called ourselves hackers. We were not breaking any laws, at least not in doing the hacking we were paid to do. We were developing software and we were having fun. Hacking refers to the spirit of fun in which we were developing software. The hacker ethic refers to the feelings of right and wrong, to the ethical ideas this community of people had -- that knowledge should be shared with other people who can benefit from it, and that important resources should be utilized rather than wasted. Back in those days computers were quite scarce, and one thing about our computer was it would execute about a third-of-a-million instructions every second, and it would do so whether there was any need to do so or not. If no one used these instructions,​ they would be wasted. So to have an administrator say, "well you people can use a computer and all the rest of you can'​t,"​ means that if none of those officially authorized people wanted to use the machine that second, it would go to waste. For many hours every morning it would mostly go to waste. So we decided that was a shame. Anyone should be able to use it who could make use of it, rather than just throwing it away. In general we did not tolerate bureaucratic obstructionism. We felt, "this computer is here, it was bought by the public, it is here to advance human knowledge and do whatever is constructive and useful."​ So we felt it was better to let anyone at all use it -- to learn about programming,​ or do any other kind of work other than commercial activity. ​
  -- Stallman 인터뷰 at http://​memex.org/​meme2-04.html  -- Stallman 인터뷰 at http://​memex.org/​meme2-04.html
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free_software.txt · Last modified: 2016/06/13 10:41 by hkimscil