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constructing_grounded_theory

# 1 An Invitation to Grounded Theory 1

Emergence of Grounded Theory 4 . . . . Luis
Constructing Grounded Theory 9 . . . . Sonny
Constructing Grounded Theory at a Glance 10 . . . . Minhye

What is inductive(귀납) and deductive(연역) method.

This book takes a side trip through data collection and then follows a lengthy trail through analysis of qualitative data. Along the way, numerous guides ease your way through the analytic and writing processes. Throughout the journey we will climb up analytic levels and raise the theoretical import of your ideas while we keep a taut rope tied to your data on solid ground.

. . . . [G]rounded theory methods consist of systematic, yet flexible guidelines for collecting and analyzing qualitative data to construct theories from the data themselves. Thus researchers construct a theory 'grounded' in their data.

What are grounded theory methods? Stated simply, grounded theory methods consist of systematic, yet flexible guidelines for collecting and analyzing qualitative data to construct theories 'grounded' in the data themselves. The guidelines offer a set of general principles and heuristic devices rather than formulaic rules (see also Atkinson, Coffey, & Delamont, 2003). Thus, data form the foundation of our theory and our analysis of these data generates the concepts we construct. Grounded theorists collect data to develop theoretical analyses from the beginning of a project. We try to learn what occurs in the research settings we join and what our research participants' lives are like. We study how they explain their statements and actions, and ask what analytic sense we can make of them.

# 2 Gathering Rich Data 13

Grounded Theory in Ethnography 21 . . . . Luis
Intensive Interviewing 25
Box 2.1 A Sample of Grounded Theory Interview Questions
About a Life Change 30 . . . . Sonny
Textual Analysis 35
Concluding Thoughts 40 . . . . Minhye

# 3 Coding in Grounded Theory Practice 42

Box 3.1 Grounded Theory Coding Example 44
Grounded Theory Coding 45
Initial Coding 47
Box 3.2 Initial Line-by-line Coding 52 . . . . Luis
Focused Coding 57
Box 3.3 Focused Coding 58
Axial Coding 60 . . . . Sonny
Theoretical Coding 63
Reducing Problems in Coding 67
Concluding Thoughts 70 . . . . . Minhye

# 4 Memo-writing 72

Box 4.1 Example of a Memo-Suffering 73
Box 4.2 The Published Version of the Memo on Suffering 77
Methods of Memo-writing 80 . . . . Luis
Box 4.3 How to Write Memos 80
Box 4.4 Example of Memo-writing 83
Adopting Writers' Strategies: Prewriting Exercises 85
Box4.5 Example of a Focused Freewrite on Codes from Bonnie Presley's Interview (Excerpt) 90 . . . . Sonny
Using Memos to Raise Focused Codes to Conceptual Categories 91
Box 4.6 Example of a Memo Prompted by Studying an Earlier MemoThe Category of 'Existing from Day to Day' 93
Concluding Thoughts 94 . . . . Minhye

# 5 Theoretical Sampling, Saturation, and Sorting 96

Theoretical Sampling 99
Saturating Theoretical Categories 113 . . . . Luis
Theoretical Sorting, Diagramming, and Integrating 115
Concluding Thoughts 121 . . . . Sonny

# 6 Reconstructing Theory in Grounded

Theory Studies 123
What Is Theory? 125
Constructivist and Objectivist Grounded Theory 129 . . . . Minhye
Theorizing in Grounded Theory 133
Inspecting Grounded Theories 140 . . . . Luis
Concluding Thoughts 148 . . . . Sonny
CONTENTS

# 7 Writing the Draft

Regarding Writing
Revising Early Drafts
Box 7.1 Excerpt from an Early Memo on Disclosure
Box 7.2 The Published Version of the Memo on Disclosure . . . . Minhye
Returning to the Library: Literature Reviews and Theoretical Frameworks
The Disputed Literature Review
Box 7.3 Writing the Literature Review . . . . Luis
Writing the Theoretical Framework
Rendering Through Writing
Concluding Thoughts . . . . Sonny

# 8 Reflecting on the Research Process

The Core of Grounded Theory: Contested Versions and Revisions
The Union of Comparative Methods and Interaction in Grounded Theory . . . Minhye
What Defines a Grounded Theory?
Evaluating Grounded Theory . . . . Luis
Criteria for Grounded Theory Studies
Grounded Theory of the Past, Present, and Future . . . . Sonny

Glossary
References

1 An Invitation to Grounded Theory 1
Emergence of Grounded Theory 4
Constructing Grounded Theory 9
Constructing Grounded Theory at a Glance 10

2 Gathering Rich Data 13
Grounded Theory in Ethnography 21
Intensive Interviewing 25
Box 2.1 A Sample of Grounded Theory Interview Questions
Textual Analysis 35
Concluding Thoughts 40

3 Coding in Grounded Theory Practice 42
Box 3.1 Grounded Theory Coding Example 44
Grounded Theory Coding 45
Initial Coding 47
Box 3.2 Initial Line-by-line Coding 52
Focused Coding 57
Box 3.3 Focused Coding 58
Axial Coding 60
Theoretical Coding 63
Reducing Problems in Coding 67
Concluding Thoughts 70

4 Memo-writing 72
Box 4.1 Example of a Memo-Suffering 73
Box 4.2 The Published Version of the Memo on Suffering 77
Methods of Memo-writing 80
Box 4.3 How to Write Memos 80
Box 4.4 Example of Memo-writing 83
Adopting Writers' Strategies: Prewriting Exercises 85
Box4.5 Example of a Focused Freewrite on Codes from
Bonnie Presley's Interview (Excerpt) 90
Using Memos to Raise Focused Codes to
Conceptual Categories 91
Box 4.6 Example of a Memo Prompted by Studying an Earlier MemoThe Category of 'Existing from Day to Day' 93
Concluding Thoughts 94

5 Theoretical Sampling, Saturation, and Sorting 96
Theoretical Sampling 99
Saturating Theoretical Categories 113
Theoretical Sorting, Diagramming, and Integrating 115
Concluding Thoughts 121

6 Reconstructing Theory in Grounded
Theory Studies 123
What Is Theory? 125
Constructivist and Objectivist Grounded Theory 129
Theorizing in Grounded Theory 133
Inspecting Grounded Theories 140
Concluding Thoughts 148
CONTENTS

7 Writing the Draft
Regarding Writing
Revising Early Drafts
Box 7.1 Excerpt from an Early Memo on Disclosure
Box 7.2 The Published Version of the Memo on Disclosure
Returning to the Library: Literature Reviews
and Theoretical Frameworks
The Disputed Literature Review
Box 7.3 Writing the Literature Review
Writing the Theoretical Framework
Rendering Through Writing
Concluding Thoughts

8 Reflecting on the Research Process
The Core of Grounded Theory: Contested Versions
and Revisions
The Union of Comparative Methods and Interaction
in Grounded Theory
What Defines a Grounded Theory?
Evaluating Grounded Theory
Criteria for Grounded Theory Studies
Grounded Theory of the Past, Present, and Future

Glossary
References