Social Learning Theory
- Watson, Skinner 등을 필두로 한 초기의 Behaviorism (Bullet theory?)의 단점에 대한 제안으로 등장.
- Bandura가 중심이 되어서 주장됨
- Learning is not purely behavioral; rather, it is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context.
- Learning can occur by observing a behavior and by observing the consequences of the behavior (vicarious reinforcement).
- Learning involves observation, extraction of information from those observations, and making decisions about the performance of the behavior (observational learning or modeling). Thus, learning can occur without an observable change in behavior.
- Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning.
- The learner is not a passive recipient of information. Cognition, environment, and behavior all mutually influence each other (reciprocal determinism).
- In order to learn, observers must attend to the modeled behavior. Attention is impacted by characteristics of the observer (e.g., perceptual abilities, cognitive abilities, arousal, past performance) and characteristics of the behavior or event (e.g., relevance, novelty, affective valence, and functional value).
- In order to reproduce an observed behavior, observers must be able to remember features of the behavior. Again, this process is influenced by observer characteristics (cognitive capabilities, cognitive rehearsal) and event characteristics (complexity).
- To reproduce a behavior, the observer must organize responses in accordance with the model. Observer characteristics affecting reproduction include physical and cognitive capabilities and previous performance.
- The decision to reproduce (or refrain from reproducing) an observed behavior is dependent on the motivations and expectations of the observer, including anticipated consequences and internal standards.
Bobo doll experiment by Bandura
다음 또한 참조: http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html
“Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” -Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977
Socially learned value vs. Inherent acquisition
Socially acquired tendency?
그러나 다음 영상은 Social Learning을 부정함 (Inherently acquired tendency?)
Watch Brain games Season 4 the first episode.
- Have they been learned such a value (compassion) by their parents beforehand?
- . . . Inborn human nature
Qs and Discussions
- 텔레비전 콘텐츠의 폭력 또한 Social Learning Process를 통해서 아이들에게 습득되는가?
- 게임의 폭력은 아이들에게 어떤 영향을 미치는가? 이 영향을 Social Learning으로 설명할 수 있는가? 이 때의 Social Learning = Peer 에게서의 습득인가 아니면 게임 콘텐츠에서의 습득인가?
- Social Cognitive Theory 에 대해서 조사하라 Social Cognitive Theory