Source WP Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward: A native of Washington, D.C., Bernstein, right, got a job at The Post in 1966 covering the local courts and police. In June 1972, he teamed up with colleague Bob Woodward, pictured left, whom he knew only slightly, to investigate the arrest of five burglars at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate office complex. He and Woodward won a Pulitzer Prize for their reporting in 1973 and wrote two books about the Watergate affair, “All the President’s Men” and “The Final Days.” Woodward, a Yale graduate who had served in the Navy, talked his way into a job as a reporter for the Metro section of The Washington Post in 1970 before working with Bernstein on the Watergate investigation. He is now an assistant managing editor of The Post.
|All the President Men Reporters Woodward and Bernstein uncover the details of the Watergate scandal that leads to President Nixon's resignation.|
중요개념: Media agenda :: Public agenda
언론은 사람에게 어떻게 생각하도록 할 것인가에 대해서는 성공적이지 않을 수도 있지만, 무엇에 대해 생각할 것인가에 있어서는 매우 성공적일 것이다.
Agenda Setting Theory 참조 (Wikipedia): Agenda-setting theory was introduced in 1972 by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw in their ground breaking study of the role of the media in 1968 presidential campaign in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The theory explains the correlation between the rate at which media cover a story and the extent that people think that this story is important. This correlation has been shown to occur repeatedly.
Conventional idea about news media before the theory:
The theory argues:
what kind of newsis important.
McCombs and Shaw
studied the 1968 presidential election a an opportunity to study agenda setting theory.
There is a clear association between what the new media present to audiences and what the audiences preceive the issues reported (Chaplehill study).
Frame theory or Media Framing
Iyengar, Peters, and Kinder (1982) managed to find supporting evidences showing the causal relationship, and established the argument of News framing.
News media work as
'gatekeepers' – the handful of news editors select, emphasize, elaborate, and even exclude news stories or parts of news stories to create a certain effect for the audience. According to Griffin (2003), about 75% of stories that come across a news desk are never printed or broadcast“ (p. 394).
|Process||Example in Action|
|Selection|| During the spring of 2003, a news classified disease known only as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), erupted in parts of eastern Asia and southeastern Canada and major part of the US. Hence, news editors
|Emphasis||Nearly all of the SARS stories emphasized the increasing number of those diagnosed with the illness, the number of lives lost because of SARS, and cities thought to be most affected by the illness; thus, these news depictions stressed the disease's danger.|
|Elaboration||During the spring of 2003, US troops were in Iraq after a brief invasion that overthrew Saddam Hussein. Although the war story was important, by May 2003, SARS coverage had eclipsed much of the military news.|
|Exclusion||Nearly no new media had coverages of preventing the disease.|
And an issue that
'who affects media' arise.
Media effect (agenda setting) is not universal. Some may not be effected by media coverage; some may be more influenced. Also, their actions are not predetermined by the new media's agenda. Also
some issues are more likely to influence audience thought, and certain individuals are more likely to be influenced by these issues.
Issues known to be effective to people's thought
Issues know not to be effective
Provide the examples of News framing of your own group. Present your examples