At the end of 19th century; and at the beginning of the 20th century, there were many technological and scientific accomplishments around the world, especially in the areas of mass media. These technologies started to exert effects which could not be determined good or evil with ease.
Let's talk about mass media development a little bit. Then, we will discuss about mass media effects. See History of Communication Research.
As you can see, behavioral studies (that was also known as scientific way of learning about human being) became very significant. Also, there was an incident of radio broadcasting – A big chaos at the East coast in the US, which was known as Mercury theatre on the Air 1) incident. Incidents like the above and development of psychology studies led to magic bullet theory which point out that the effect of mass media (film and radio) are immediate and strong 2).
Also, the period of
cold war was beginning, which means that the period of
propaganda started. Joseph Stalin (and many others) believed that film was one of the most influential methods to teach and change people. This kind of political atmosphere also led to researcher to study magic power of mass media. Harold Lasswell was a researcher who believed the potential power of mass media, and wrote Propaganda Technique in the World War (1927)3).
Film had played a primary role in Soviet propaganda from the very beginning. Sergey Eisenstein pioneered a new genre, “Soviet Montage,” in the 1920s. This method manipulates emotions through quick editing and contrasting images. Battleship Potemkin4) and Ten Days that Shook the World5) were his two most highly regarded post-revolutionary pieces. Unfortunately, Stalin did not find Eisenstein's work to be “real” enough to fit into the new “Socialist Realism” genre. Ten Days that Shook the World was banned by Stalin. Stalin embarked on a film tradition of his own.
Stalin had always been fascinated by the medium of film. Seeing is believing, or so the axiom goes, and to a generation new to film what was on the screen might as well have been happening right in front of them. Of course what is on film is not necessarily true, and therein lies the source of Stalin's love for film.
“Cinema is the art of illusion, yet it dictates its laws to life itself ” - Joseph Stalin
This term shows that at the time, people truly believed that the power of the mass media would be omnipotent. As a result, many researchers who supported by the government started studying mass media effects.
The hypodermic needle theory implied that mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on their audiences. The mass media in the 1940s and 1950s were perceived as a powerful influence on behaviour change. Several factors contributed to this strong effects theory of communication. Those were the fast rise and popularization of radio and television, the emergence of the persuasion industries such as advertising and propaganda, the Payne Fund studies of the 1930s, which focused on the impact of motion pictures on children, and Hitler's monopolization of the mass media during WWII to unify the German public behind the Nazi party, and so on. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypodermic_needle_model
Later, researchers such as Stanton, Cantril, and Lazarsfeld studied mass media at Princeton University, and argued that there was
little evidence that mass media contents affect or influence people in general. They argued that media were no longer feared as instruments of political oppression and manipulation because the public itself was viewed as very resistant to persuasion and extremist manipulation. They believe that most people were influenced by others rather than by media; opinion leaders in every community, who, at every level of society, were responsible for guiding and stabilizing politics. <Limited effects of mass media, see http://socyberty.com/sociology/limited-effects-theory/>
power to make people what to think about. People believe that they are not manipulated by the news stories. However, the researchers in this line of thoughts argue that people are affected by the mass media – what is important issues around us.
Spiral of Silenceproposed by a german scholar, Noelle-Nuemann. Also, the The third person effect was proposed. And many other approaches were developed for studying the mass media and their effects.
See Research Methods Lecture Note first.
. . . [Theories] simply provide an abstract understanding of communication process (Miller, 2002).
frame, etc.: They give us a frame to make sense out of what we are experiencing.
[Communication theory is] . . . any systematic summary about the nature of the communication process.
of the social. This special science of the social started to be called
What it suggests is that those who employed scientific way of knowing things believed that they were studying science – something different from that had been studied for a long time. They were not studying Poetry, Rhetoric, etc. They were, they believed, studying SCIENCE, which was hold by laws and theories.
What is philosophy?
The thing (existence) --- the thing in my mind (knolwedge) | |___ certitudes
ideal status. The truth is there; but will never be discovered; since only their copies will be experienced. see 철학적인_접근에서의_이론
Some elements involved in the exaplanation of the social phenomena, the society, the world, etc.:
In other words, you want to explain the world with the above three materials, because they are the essence of the world, and social phenomena.
There are four major different approaches in doing the above:
Each approach does have a unique way of seeing the world (epistemologically and ontologically).
Three classes: King and his Knight; the Priest; the Peasant
managingthem – commercial agriculture).
the wealth. These are used for industrial capitalism.
land; and those who own it became capitalists.
parole(system of language vs. use of language = speech)
Assumption: Individuals are like atoms. If a researcher figures out how an individual's decision making process works, such process would be common to everyone in the society.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Main vs. Peripheral routes (in processing information)
The thing (existence) -- the thing in my mind (knolwedge) | |___ certitudes
A cup or a desk example: From empiricism . . . . The thing in your mind and the thing that you are seeing in front your eyes are equal. There is no doubt about it. We do not consult with each other for what each one is experiencing.
Then, what about the picture? What is it? Or, http://viscog.beckman.illinois.edu/flashmovie/15.php for thoroughness of human perceptions.
19세기에서 20세기에 걸쳐 급속하게 발전한 과학과 기술은 전통적으로 철학의 영역이라 여겨지고 있었던 분야들을 자신의 범주로 포함시켰다. 특히 심리학의 형성과 발전은 인지, 정신과 같은 철학 본원의 영역으로 인정 받던 분야 역시 과학의 탐구 대상에서 제외될 수 없음을 보여주었다. 이렇게 과학의 거센 도전을 맞은 철학은 영국, 미국의 철학과 같이 보다 과학쪽으로 다가가거나, 리케르트와 같은 신칸트주의에서 처럼 과학과 철학을 별개의 학문으로 분리하려는 움직임이 있었다. 후설은 앞의 움직임과는 다른 방향에서 과학을 바라보았다. 그는 과학의 근간을 이루는 실증주의를 공격하여 그것이 참된 의미의 객관이 될 수 있는지 물었다. 이러한 실증주의 비판을 통해 후설이 제창한 철학을 현상학이라 한다. - Edmund Husserl Wikipedi Kr.
Information (from the object to your brain + something else)
The fact that we
know things may be:
Understanding of social orders: – ethnomethodology
Geertz states that we must proceed interpreting a culture’s web of symbols by isolating its elements, specifying the internal relationships among those elements and characterize the whole system in some general way?according to the core symbols around which it is organized, the underlying structures of which it is a surface expression, or the ideological principles upon which it is based. Culture is public because “meaning is,” and systems of meanings are what produce culture, they are the collective property of a particular people
Thick Description, “symbolic anthropology”, meaning → culture, understanding of meaning (public symbol), . . . .
What they argue is that: