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See also the Book: diffusion_of_innovations
and Eve Rogers' speech

Concepts and Ideas


  • Innovation (혁신):
    • newness of ideas, technologies, objects, news, knowledge, etc.
  • Adopters (채택자):
    • individuals, groups, or organizations
  • Communication channels (커뮤니케이션 채널):
    • medium (or media) through which innovation passes
  • Time (시간):
    • 혁신이 전파되는데 걸리는 시간. 단기간 내에 이루어지지 않는 것이 보통. 라이안과 그로스의 (Ryan and Gross, 1943) 연구에서는 새로운 옥수수 품종이 전파되는데 10년이 걸렸다고 함.
  • System:
    • 혁신과 전파가 이루어지는 사회의 성격도 중요한 역할을 함. 사회(시스템)가 개인(Adopters)과 채널(Channels)의 사회적 사용에 영향을 줄 뿐더러, 혁신 자체가 나타나도록 하는데에도 영향을 주기 때문에.

Why do certain technology spread faster than others? (Summary of Diffusion Theory PDF 파일 참조)

  1. Relative advantage
  2. Compatibility with existing values and practices
  3. Simplicity and ease of use
  4. Trial-ability
  5. Observable results

2 step flow theory vs. bullet theory AKA 피하주사 모델 (hypodermic needle model)

  • Ohio Eerie County 연구: 대통령 선거에서의 매스미디어의 역할 (정치적 결정의 변화)
  • Mass media X :: Interpersonal O
  • Importance of Communication channel = communication network
  • 개혁의 단계
    • Knowledge ←– Mass media
    • Persuasion ←– Interpersonal + 위의 인식된 개혁의 특성
    • Decision
    • Implementation
    • Confirmation

의견지도자 (…력) = opinion leaders (or opinion leadership)

소시오그램 (sociogram)

Moreno developed sociometry 1). He started asking people who their friends were and explored the ways in which their relations with others served as both limitations and opportunities for action and for their psychological behavior. He founded the journal sociometry which investigated the relationship between psychological well-being and “social configurations”. He believed that large scale social phenomena, such as the economy and state, were sustained and reproduced over time by the small scale configurations formed by peoples patterns of friendship, dislike and other relations.

Moreno invented the sociogram – a diagram of points and lines used to represent relations among persons. Before that, ideas like the “social fabric” or “social network” were just vague ideas. Moreno used sociograms to identify social leaders and isolates, to uncover asymmetry and reciprocity in friendship choices, and to map chains of indirect connection. One of the configurations he observed was the sociometric star: an individual chosen by many others as a friend.Moreno developed sociometry. . . .

See also, Moreno, J. L. (1941). Foundations of Sociometry: An Introduction. Sociometry, 4(1), 15-35. Original Article PDF file download
See also, Introduction to Sociometry from The Hoop and the Tree web site
–> Formation of groups (from The Study of Hawthorne Factory)

커뮤니케이션 네트워크 (Communication network)의 특징: 동질성 과 이질성 (homophily and heterophily)

  • 동질성 :: 커뮤니케이션 효과(effects of communication)
  • 이질성 :: 확산의 잠재력
    • the Strength of Weak Ties . . . by Mark Granovetter (1973)

확산 그래프 (diffusion graph)

  • 팩스의 확산 예, pp. 90-91
  • 인터넷의 확산 (1969 - - - - - - - - - - 1995 - - - - - - ) See Internet History

Social Learning Theory, (사회학습이론)

  • Observational (or social) modeling — of (others' behavior)
  • 언어, 비언어, 관찰, 습득, 미디어 콘텐츠, 학습 . . . .

Critical Mass, (결정적 다수)

  • 전략 (to reach to the Critical Mass)
    • Idea/Policy/Technology 와 관련한 사회적 영향력이 많은 집단을 표적(target)으로
    • Pluralistic Ignorance . . . 강조
    • 집단을 분리하여 소수집단(개혁성이 높은 집단 등)에서의 성공예를 만드는 노력 (이메일 – sales dept. vs. R&D dept.)

How to IDENTIFY the OLs? (table 8.1)

  • 사회관계측정
  • 정보제공자의 평가
  • 자기추천방식
  • 관찰
  • e.g., 미디어학과에서 (캐리어와 학업의) 진로결정에 있어서 영향력을 미치는 자는 누구인가?
see an article, Moreno's Sociometry
diffusion_theory.txt · Last modified: 2022/12/06 09:01 by hkimscil

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