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Installation, base


  1. Open in your browser.
  2. Click on “CRAN”. You’ll see a list of mirror sites, organized by country.
  3. Select a site near you.
  4. Click on “Windows” under “Download and Install R”.
  5. Click on “base”.
  6. Click on the link for downloading the latest version of R (an .exe file).
  7. When the download completes, double-click on the .exe file and answer the usual questions.


  1. Open in your browser.
  2. Click on “CRAN”. You’ll see a list of mirror sites, organized by country.
  3. Select a site near you.
  4. Click on “MacOS X”.
  5. Click on the .pkg file for the latest version of R, under “Files:”, to download it.
  6. When the download completes, double-click on the .pkg file and answer the usual questions.

Linux or Unix
The major Linux distributions have packages for installing R. Here are some examples:

Distribution Package name
Ubuntu or Debian r-base
Red Hat or Fedora R.i386
Suse R-base

Use the system’s package manager to download and install the package. Normally, you will need the root password or sudo privileges; otherwise, ask a system administrator to perform the installation.


Rstudio as a R tool
download for windows OS.

Starting R


  • Click on Start → All Programs → R; or
  • double-click on the R icon on your desktop (assuming the installer created an icon for you).


  • Either click on the icon in the Applications directory or
  • put the R icon on the dock and click on the icon there.
  • Alternatively, you can just type R on a Unix command line in a shell.

Linux or Unix

  • Start the R program from the shell prompt using the R command (uppercase R).

A trial

plot(dist~speed, data=cars) <- lm(dist ~ speed, data=cars)
boxplot(weight~feed, data=chickwts)
anova(lm(weight~feed, data=chickwts) ## or . . . 
m.chck <- aov(weight~feed, data = chickwts)

Factorial ANOVA
Multiple regression

Entering commands

> 1+1
> 1+1
[1] 2
[1] 5 
[1] 5 

Table 1-1. Keystrokes for command-line editing

Labeled key Ctrl-key combination Effect
Up arrow Ctrl-P Recall previous command by moving backward through the history of commands.
Down arrow Ctrl-N Move forward through the history of commands.
Backspace Ctrl-H Delete the character to the left of cursor.
Delete (Del) Ctrl-D Delete the character to the right of cursor.
Home Ctrl-A Move cursor to the start of the line.
End Ctrl-E Move cursor to the end of the line.
Right arrow Ctrl-F Move cursor right (forward) one character.
Left arrow Ctrl-B Move cursor left (back) one character.
Ctrl-K Delete everything from the cursor position to the end of the line.
Ctrl-U Clear the whole darn line and start over.
Tab Name completion (on some platforms).

Exiting from R

On all platforms, you can also use the q function (as in quit) to terminate the program.

> q() 

Note the empty parentheses, which are necessary to call the function.


  • Select File → Exit from the main menu; or click on the red X in the upper-right corner of the window frame.


  • Press CMD-q (apple-q); or click on the red X in the upper-left corner of the window frame.

Linux or Unix

  • At the command prompt, press Ctrl-D.

Getting help

Use the help.start function to see the documentation’s table of contents:

 > help.start() 
 > help.start()
starting httpd help server ... done
If nothing happens, you should open
‘’ yourself

Click here to see a list of all the installed packages, both in the base packages and the additional, installed packages. Click on a package name to see a list of its functions and datasets.
Search Engine & Keywords
Click here to access a simple search engine, which allows you to search the documentation by keyword or phrase. There is also a list of common keywords, organized by topic; click one to see the associated pages.

Getting help from functions

Use help to display the documentation for the function:

 > help(functionname) 

Use args for a quick reminder of the function arguments:

 > args(functionname) 

Use example to see examples of using the function:

 > example(functionname) 
 > help(mean) 
 > ?mean 
 > args(mean) 
 > example(mean) 
 > > example(mean)

mean> x <- c(0:10, 50)

mean> xm <- mean(x)

mean> c(xm, mean(x, trim = 0.10))
[1] 8.75 5.50

see this document for trim option

 mean> mean(USArrests, trim = 0.2)
Murder Assault UrbanPop Rape
7.42 167.60 66.20 20.16
 mean> colMeans(USArrests)
Murder Assault UrbanPop Rape
7.42 167.60 66.20 20.16

see this document for colMeans function.

Searching via Keywords

  • A typical pattern is a function name or keyword.
  • Notice that it must be enclosed in quotation marks.
 > ??pattern 
 >"social network") 

Getting help on a package

 > help(package="packagename") 
 > help(package="tseries") 
 > install.package("tseries")
Error: could not find function "install.package"
 > install.packages("tseries")
Installing package into ‘D:/Users/Hyo/Documents/R/win-library/3.2’
(as ‘lib’ is unspecified)
--- Please select a CRAN mirror for use in this session ---
trying URL ''
Content type 'application/zip' length 321067 bytes (313 KB)
downloaded 313 KB

package ‘tseries’ successfully unpacked and MD5 sums checked

The downloaded binary packages are in
> help(package="tseries")


Searching the Web for help

 > RSiteSearch("ANOVA") 

Finding Relevant Functions and Packages

  • Visit the list of task views at Find and read the task view for your area, which will give you links to and descriptions of relevant packages. Or visit, search by keyword, click on the Task Views tab, and select an applicable task view.
  • Visit crantastic and search for packages by keyword.
  • To find relevant functions, visit, search by name or keyword, and click on the Functions tab.
r/getting_started.txt · Last modified: 2021/03/02 09:48 by hkimscil