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r:getting_started

Installation, base

Windows

  1. Open http://www.r-project.org/ in your browser.
  2. Click on “CRAN”. You’ll see a list of mirror sites, organized by country.
  3. Select a site near you.
  4. Click on “Windows” under “Download and Install R”.
  5. Click on “base”.
  6. Click on the link for downloading the latest version of R (an .exe file).
  7. When the download completes, double-click on the .exe file and answer the usual questions.

OS X

  1. Open http://www.r-project.org/ in your browser.
  2. Click on “CRAN”. You’ll see a list of mirror sites, organized by country.
  3. Select a site near you.
  4. Click on “MacOS X”.
  5. Click on the .pkg file for the latest version of R, under “Files:”, to download it.
  6. When the download completes, double-click on the .pkg file and answer the usual questions.

Linux or Unix
The major Linux distributions have packages for installing R. Here are some examples:

Distribution Package name
Ubuntu or Debian r-base
Red Hat or Fedora R.i386
Suse R-base

Use the system’s package manager to download and install the package. Normally, you will need the root password or sudo privileges; otherwise, ask a system administrator to perform the installation.

Rstudio

Rstudio as a R tool
download for windows OS.

Starting R

Windows

  • Click on Start → All Programs → R; or
  • double-click on the R icon on your desktop (assuming the installer created an icon for you).

OS X

  • Either click on the icon in the Applications directory or
  • put the R icon on the dock and click on the icon there.
  • Alternatively, you can just type R on a Unix command line in a shell.

Linux or Unix

  • Start the R program from the shell prompt using the R command (uppercase R).

A trial

install.packages("NRAIA")
library(NRAIA)
detach(package:NRAIA)
trees
summary(trees)
boxplot(trees)
pair(trees)
cars
plot(dist~speed, data=cars)
m.cars <- lm(dist ~ speed, data=cars)
m.cars
summary(m.cars)
chickwts
summary(chickwts)
boxplot(weight~feed, data=chickwts)
anova(lm(weight~feed, data=chickwts) ## or . . . 
m.chck <- aov(weight~feed, data = chickwts)
m.chck
summary(m.chck)

t-test
ANOVA
Factorial ANOVA
correlation
regression
Multiple regression


Entering commands

> 1+1
> 1+1
[1] 2
max(1,3,5) 
[1] 5 
max(1,3
,5) 
[1] 5 

Table 1-1. Keystrokes for command-line editing

Labeled key Ctrl-key combination Effect
Up arrow Ctrl-P Recall previous command by moving backward through the history of commands.
Down arrow Ctrl-N Move forward through the history of commands.
Backspace Ctrl-H Delete the character to the left of cursor.
Delete (Del) Ctrl-D Delete the character to the right of cursor.
Home Ctrl-A Move cursor to the start of the line.
End Ctrl-E Move cursor to the end of the line.
Right arrow Ctrl-F Move cursor right (forward) one character.
Left arrow Ctrl-B Move cursor left (back) one character.
Ctrl-K Delete everything from the cursor position to the end of the line.
Ctrl-U Clear the whole darn line and start over.
Tab Name completion (on some platforms).

Exiting from R

On all platforms, you can also use the q function (as in quit) to terminate the program.

> q() 

Note the empty parentheses, which are necessary to call the function.

Windows

  • Select File → Exit from the main menu; or click on the red X in the upper-right corner of the window frame.

OS X

  • Press CMD-q (apple-q); or click on the red X in the upper-left corner of the window frame.

Linux or Unix

  • At the command prompt, press Ctrl-D.

Getting help

Use the help.start function to see the documentation’s table of contents:

 > help.start() 
 > help.start()
starting httpd help server ... done
If nothing happens, you should open
‘http://127.0.0.1:25578/doc/html/index.html’ yourself

start.help()

Packages
Click here to see a list of all the installed packages, both in the base packages and the additional, installed packages. Click on a package name to see a list of its functions and datasets.
Search Engine & Keywords
Click here to access a simple search engine, which allows you to search the documentation by keyword or phrase. There is also a list of common keywords, organized by topic; click one to see the associated pages.

Getting help from functions

Use help to display the documentation for the function:

 > help(functionname) 

Use args for a quick reminder of the function arguments:

 > args(functionname) 

Use example to see examples of using the function:

 > example(functionname) 
 > help(mean) 
 > ?mean 
 > args(mean) 
 > example(mean) 
 > > example(mean)

mean> x <- c(0:10, 50)

mean> xm <- mean(x)

mean> c(xm, mean(x, trim = 0.10))
[1] 8.75 5.50

see this document for trim option

 mean> mean(USArrests, trim = 0.2)
Murder Assault UrbanPop Rape
7.42 167.60 66.20 20.16
 mean> colMeans(USArrests)
Murder Assault UrbanPop Rape
7.42 167.60 66.20 20.16

see this document for colMeans function.

Searching via Keywords

 > help.search("pattern") 
  • A typical pattern is a function name or keyword.
  • Notice that it must be enclosed in quotation marks.
 > ??pattern 
 > help.search("social network") 

Getting help on a package

 > help(package="packagename") 
 > help(package="tseries") 
 > install.package("tseries")
Error: could not find function "install.package"
 > install.packages("tseries")
Installing package into ‘D:/Users/Hyo/Documents/R/win-library/3.2’
(as ‘lib’ is unspecified)
--- Please select a CRAN mirror for use in this session ---
trying URL 'https://cran.ism.ac.jp/bin/windows/contrib/3.2/tseries_0.10-35.zip'
Content type 'application/zip' length 321067 bytes (313 KB)
downloaded 313 KB

package ‘tseries’ successfully unpacked and MD5 sums checked

The downloaded binary packages are in
        C:\Users\Hyo\AppData\Local\Temp\RtmpmQCQRK\downloaded_packages
> help(package="tseries")
> 

help.package.jpg

Searching the Web for help

 > RSiteSearch("ANOVA") 

Finding Relevant Functions and Packages

  • Visit the list of task views at http://cran.r-project.org/web/views/. Find and read the task view for your area, which will give you links to and descriptions of relevant packages. Or visit http://rseek.org, search by keyword, click on the Task Views tab, and select an applicable task view.
  • Visit crantastic and search for packages by keyword.
  • To find relevant functions, visit http://rseek.org, search by name or keyword, and click on the Functions tab.
r/getting_started.txt · Last modified: 2021/03/02 09:48 by hkimscil